Unit 66,67 and 68
Understand theory and applications of 3D
Applications of 3D:
|Fantastic Beats And Where To Find Them|
Displaying 3D polygon animations:
|In-depth Graphics Pipeline|
|Local Illumination vs. Global illumination|
API's (Application Programming Interface) are basically messengers that tell systems what to do. Specialised versions have been created to ease all stages of computer graphics as they have proved to be extremely important to computer graphics hardware manufacturers. They provide a way for programmers to access the hardware in an abstract and more or less new way. Examples of API's are; Direct3D which is a low-level 3D API that is part of DirectX and can render 3D graphics in applications like in games, it uses hardware acceleration if it actually available on the graphics card;WebGL which is a web-based API that renders 3D (and 2D) graphics and can be used in any compatible web browser without the use of plug-ins, it can be mixed with other HTML elements and can also be combined with other parts of the page or within the pages background; and OpenGL which is a high-level API that renders 3D (and 2D) vector graphics, it is most often used to interact with a GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) and was released in 1991 with it having around 17 versions that have been out. The Graphics Pipeline is a conceptual model in computer graphics that describes what steps a graphics system needs to render a 3D scene to a 2D screen. Some things involved in this are; clipping which removes parts of the image that aren't visible in the 2D screen and only the primitives which are within the visual volume need to actually be rastered; lighting which is where scenes can place light sources around to make the lighting of objects look much more realistic; projection which has the ability to transform the view volume into a cube with the corner point co-ordinates, occasionally the other target volumes are used as well; rasterisation in which all primitives are rastered and the grid points also called fragments for the sake of distinction with one fragment equalling one pixel in the frame buffer which corresponds to one pixel per screen; and shading, the most important shader units are pixel shaders, vertex shaders and geometry shaders. Rendering techniques include ray tracing which provides realistic simulation of lighting over different rendering methods. It effects like reflections and shadows are difficult to simulate using other algorithms, they are natural results of the ray tracing algorithm and models mirror reflections well but the diffuse reflection is approximated. Radiosity is a second rendering technique with models diffusing reflections accurately but mirror reflections are ignored and it attempts to simulate the way in which directly illuminated surfaces act as an indirect light source. Rendering engines convert 3D wire frame models into 2D images on a computer, Mental Ray uses and supports Ray Tracing, and Arnold is based on Ray Tracing technology. There are two types of major lighting with Indirect (Global illumination) being the first, it is all of the inter-reflected light in a scene. It is also an approximation of real-world indirect light transmission and an example would be if light spilled into a room through the space at the bottom or side of the a door. The second is Local illumination (light sources) where it is only the light provided directly from a light source. Examples of this method are if there was a spotlight on a stage or the sun shining directly on a solar panel. Applying texture is like applying wrapping paper to a present and it is done by having every vertex in a polygon assigned a texture co-ordinate. Fogging is a technique that is used to give an impression of distance, it achieves this by imitating fog. Objects faded out will be the ones that are further away and if there any even further a away will not be in view at all, this can save processor power. Pixel shaders are components that can be programmed to work on a per pixel basis and they take care of things like lighting and bump mapping. A vertex shader is programmed using a specific assembly-like language, they are orientated to the scene geometry.
|The construction of a face that could make up|
a polygon using vertices and edges.
|The elements of a mesh|
|The construction of a simple mesh|
using a primitive cube shape
3D development software:
Autodesk 3ds Max is a 3D computer graphics program which is used to make 3D animations, models, games and images. It has modelling capabilities with flexible plugin architecture, it is often used by video game developers, Tv commerial studios as well as architectural studios. Maya is an animation, modelling, simulation and rendering software that provides an integrated toolset. It is used for animation, environments, motion graphics, VR and character creation. It has been used in the first Chronicles of Narnia film, the South Park series and the video game Halo 4. Mudbox is a digital painting and sculpting software which gives 3D artists with a tactile toolset for creating and modifying 3D geometry and textures. Some file formats that are currently used within the modelling industry are; .3ds which is used by Autodesk's 3ds Max which aims to retain only the essential geometry, lighting and texture data; .mb is used by Autodesk's Maya software, mb stands for Maya Binary and it contains 3D models, textures, lighting and animation data; .lwo is used by LightWave, the files contain objects stored as meshes and also features polygons, points and surfaces; and .C4d files have 3D models created with Cinema 4D, it will contain a scene which has one or more objects with position, pivot points, meshes, rotation and animation information. Plug-ins are basically add-ons which can be applied to a modelling software.
|Halo 4 - Energy Sword made in Maya|
|Lara Croft gaining in polygon size over time along with |
the systems as they can handle the higher quality.